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Glossary Oracle 10.2

access path analysis
The component of the Automatic Tuning Optimizer that identifies whether a new index will significantly improve the execution plan for one or more tables in a query.

ATO
See Automatic Tuning Optimizer.

Automatic Database Diagnostic Monitor (ADDM)
Automatic Database Diagnostic Monitor (ADDM) lets the Oracle Database diagnose its own performance and determine how identified problems could be resolved. ADDM runs automatically after each AWR statistics capture, making the performance diagnostic data readily available.

Active Session History (ASH)
Active session history provides sampled session activity in the instance. Active sessions are sampled every second and are stored in a circular buffer in SGA. Using the Active Session History enables you to examine and perform detailed analysis on both current data in the V$ACTIVE_SESSION_HISTORY view and historical data in the DBA_HIST_ACTIVE_SESS_HISTORY view.

Automatic Shared Memory Management (ASMM)
Automatic Shared Memory Management simplifies the configuration of the SGA. Each component of the SGA is adjusted based on the requirement to maximize memory utilization. To use Automatic Shared Memory Management, set the SGA_TARGET initialization parameter to a nonzero value and set the STATISTICS_LEVEL initialization parameter to TYPICAL or ALL.

Automatic Storage Management (ASM)
A cluster file system that can be used with either stand-alone Oracle instances or with Oracle RAC to provide a vertically integrated subsystem encapsulating a file system, a volume manager, and a fault-tolerant environment specifically designed for Oracle databases. ASM is a new feature introduced in Oracle 10g that manages the disk for database use and tunes I/O automatically. ASM spreads data evenly across all the devices in the disk group to optimize performance and utilization.

Automatic Tuning Optimizer (ATO)
A component of the Oracle optimizer that is called by the SQL Tuning Advisor to perform several specific types of analyses in tuning mode to optimize the execution plan of a query.

Automatic Workload Repository (AWR)
Automatic Workload Repository (AWR) is a builtin repository in every Oracle Database. At regular intervals (default 1 hour) the MMON process makes a snapshot of all vital statistics of the database and workload information and stores them in AWR.

BACKUP AS COPY
A new RMAN command option to back up the database, tablespaces, or individual datafiles as an image copy. Replaces the COPY command in previous versions of RMAN.

Baselines
Basic performance data collected from the database when the database is operating normally.

bigfile tablespace
A tablespace consisting of only one datafile with a new ROWID format and a larger address space allowing for a maximum size of 128TB. Bigfile tablespaces move the maintenance point up from the datafile to the tablespace.

binary compression
Compression algorithm available for backup sets in RMAN to save disk space with minimal CPU overhead. Unlike operating system or tape controller compression, RMAN’s binary compression is optimized for Oracle datafiles.

BINARY_DOUBLE
BINARY_DOUBLE is a new native numeric data type in Oracle 10g with 64-bit precision. It’s based on the IEEE 754 standard for binary floating-point arithmetic.

BINARY_FLOAT
BINARY_FLOAT is a new native numeric data type in Oracle 10g with 32-bit precision. It’s based on the IEEE 754 standard for binary floating-point arithmetic.

calendaring expressions
Specify the frequency of schedules or jobs. It uses each calendar component.

change-tracking file
A binary database file, usually stored with the other database datafiles, that maintains a list of changed blocks in the database since the last backup. This file reduces the amount of time RMAN requires to perform an incremental backup.

coarse striping
An ASM striping method for higher-latency objects that uses a stripe size of 1MB.

Common Manageability Infrastructure (CMI)
Components of the database that manage and tune the Oracle 10g database. The components are Automatic Workload Repository, automated tasks feature, sever generated alerts and advisory framework.

comprehensive mode
A mode within the SQL Access Advisor that performs its analysis under the assumption that an entire workload, in contrast to a partial workload or a single SQL statement, is being analyzed.

CTWR
A new background process that maintains the change-tracking file for RMAN incremental backups.

Data Pump
A new feature of Oracle 10 g that provides fast parallel bulk data and metadata movement between Oracle databases. Data Pump is fully integrated with the Oracle database and is installed automatically during database creation or database upgrade.

Database Configuration Assistant (DBCA)
The Database Configuration Assistant (DBCA) is a GUI tool to create a database, configure an existing database, and delete a database. DBCA can also clone an existing database.

DATABASE_PROPERTIES
A data dictionary view containing one row for various characteristics of the database, such as NLS parameters, the names of the default permanent and temporary tablespaces, and the default type of tablespace created with CREATE TABLESPACE.

Database Upgrade Utility (DBUA)
The Database Upgrade Utility (DBUA) is a GUI tool to upgrade an existing database to Oracle 10g. DBUA does all the necessary checking prior to the upgrade and performs the upgrade with minimal intervention.

DBMS_FILE_TRANSFER
A system package that is used for copying binary files between directories on the same server or between directories on different servers, without leaving the PL/SQL environment.

DBMS_SERVER_ALERT
A PL/SQL package to configure and retrieve warning and critical threshold levels for tablespace space usage and other database resources.

Dbtime
A unit of measure in which database performance is measured. DBtime is the cumulative time spent by the database server in processing user requests, which includes wait time and CPU time.

default permanent tablespace
The tablespace assigned to a user to store permanent objects when a permanent tablespace is not explicitly assigned to the user.

disk group
A group of disks treated as a unit in an ASM instance for both redundancy and performance.

dynamic rebalancing
An ASM feature that automatically reallocates extents within an ASM file when a disk in an ASM disk group is added, deleted, or fails.

dynamic sampling
A method of statistics collection, controlled by the initialization parameter OPTIMZER_DYNAMIC_SAMPLING, that produces compile-time statistics for query objects that have stale or missing statistics.

expdp
Oracle Data Pump client utility to export data.

encoded block number
A new component of a ROWID in a bigfile tablespace, combining the relative datafile number and data block number from the smallfile ROWID format to form a block number with a much larger address space.

End-to-end application tracing
Tracing sessions from its start at the client to its end at the server. Oracle 10g allows tracing client sessions using the client identifier across multiple sessions when a middle-tier or shared-server configuration is involved.

external redundancy
For an ASM disk group with only one failure group, relying on the external disk hardware subsystem to provide mirroring.

External Table
A type of oracle database table, where the actual data is stored in external files (operating system files). The definition of the table reside in the database dictionary.

failure group
Disks as part of an ASM disk group that share a common resource whose failure will cause the entire set of disks to be unavailable to the disk group.

fast incremental backups
An RMAN backup type that uses the change-tracking file to perform an incremental backup more quickly by reading only those blocks from the database datafiles that have changed.

Fine-grained auditing
Auditing user actions at the row level—row-level security. Data changes and queries can be audited at the row level in addition to the object level auditing.

fine striping
An ASM striping method for low-latency objects that uses a stripe size of 128KB.

fixed table
A table that exists in memory only that typically contains information about instance or memory structures and is presented in the form of a table. These tables often begin with X$, are not documented for general use, and are the basis for many of the V$ dynamic performance views.

flash recovery area
A single, unified storage area for all recovery-related files and recovery activities in an Oracle database. Configured with the initialization parameters DB_RECOVERY_FILE_DEST_SIZE and DB_RECOVERY_FILE_DEST.

flashback buffer
Whenever Flashback Database is enabled, this new memory area within the SGA stores changes to data blocks to facilitate Flashback Database. The RVWR process writes the blocks in the flashback buffer to flashback logs in the flash recovery area.

Flashback Database
A flashback feature that allows you to quickly revert the entire database to its state as of a previous point in time.

Flashback Drop
A flashback feature that retrieves a table after it has been dropped without using other more complicated recovery techniques.

Flashback Table
A flashback feature that allows you to recover one or more existing tables to a specific point in time. Flashback Table is done in place by rolling back only the changes made to the table or tables and their dependent objects, such as indexes.

Flashback Transaction Query
A recovery technique that retrieves all changes within the database for a specified time period and for a particular transaction number. Uses the data dictionary view FLASHBACK_TRANSACTION_QUERY.

Flashback Versions Query
A recovery technique that shows all versions of all rows in a table between two SCNs or time stamps, whether the rows were inserted, deleted, or updated.

full workload
An option within the SQL Access Advisor to specify that a workload is the full set of SQL statements run as part of an application or throughout a business day.

GET_THRESHOLD
A procedure within the package DBMS_SERVER_ALERT to retrieve the threshold levels for a tablespace or other database resource.

Growth Trend Report
A report available within the EM Database Control that uses AWR data to show segment growth in the past and predict segment growth in the future.

global script
A new type of RMAN script that can be shared between databases.

hash-partitioned global indexes
Global indexes that use an internal hashing algorithm to assign index entries to partitions in a partitioned global index. Hash-partitioned global indexes increase the performance of parallel queries by allowing multiple parallel processes per partition in a parallel SELECT query.

high redundancy
For an ASM disk group, a level of redundancy that requires at least three failure groups in the disk group.

HTML DB
HTML DB is a Rapid Application Development (RAD) tool for the Oracle database and has many built-in themes and features. Using only a web browser, developers can build web applications faster.

impdp
Oracle Data Pump client utility to import data.

incrementally updated backup
The process of updating an existing image copy of a datafile with incremental backups to reduce the number of archived redo log files, and therefore the amount of time, needed to recover a datafile.

job
Specifies what program needs to be executed and the schedule of when.

job class
Defines a group of jobs that share the same characteristics and have common resource usage requirements. A job can belong to only one job class.

limited mode
A mode within SQL Access Advisor that performs its analysis under the assumption that a subset of the entire workload, such as a single SQL statement, is being analyzed.

long query warning alert
An alert generated when a user receives a “Snapshot too old” error. This alert is generated at most once per 24-hour period.

master control process (MCP)
Controls the execution of the Data Pump job; there is one MCP per job. MCP divides the Data Pump job into various metadata and data load or unload jobs and hands them over to the worker processes.

MMAN
MMAN is the Memory Manager process responsible for Automatic Shared Memory Management.

MMON
A new Oracle background process that checks for tablespace space problems every 10 minutes; alerts are triggered both when a threshold is exceeded and once again when the space usage for a tablespace falls back below the threshold.

MODEL clause
A new clause available in the SELECT statement to perform spreadsheet-like array computations.

normal mode
A mode of the SQL Tuning Advisor that performs much like the optimizer in previous versions of Oracle to provide a reasonable execution plan within limited time constraints.

normal redundancy
For an ASM disk group, a level of redundancy that requires at least two failure groups in the disk group.

OPTIMIZER_DYNAMIC_SAMPLING
A new initialization parameter that controls the level of runtime statistics collection for objects that have stale or missing statistics.

Oracle 10g HTTP Server (OHS)
The Oracle 10g HTTP Server (OHS) is based on the Apache web server 1.3.28 and is designed to take advantage of the latest optimizations and security features.

Oracle Enterprise Manger (EM)
The Oracle Enterprise Manager (EM) is a GUI tool to manage the Oracle environment, which includes a database, host server, listener, HTTP Server, and web applications.

Oracle Management Agent
The Oracle Management Agent is used by Oracle Enterprise Manager to monitor the database and server. The Oracle Management Agent is responsible for monitoring all targets on the host, for communicating that information to the middle-tier Management Service, and for managing and maintaining the host and its targets.

Oracle Universal Installer (OUI)
The Oracle Universal Installer (OUI) is a GUI tool to install the Oracle software. The OUI performs the necessary OS and hardware resources before the install.

ORBn
In an ASM instance, this performs the actual extent movement between disks in the disk groups managed by the ASM instance. n can be from 0 to 9.

partial workload
An option within the SQL Access Advisor to specify that a workload is only a single SQL statement or a group of problematic SQL statements, as opposed to all SQL statements run during a typical business cycle.

Partition change tracking
Partition change tracking (PCT) is the ability to identify which rows in a materialized view are affected by certain detail table partitions.

Partitioned outer join
A method in Oracle 10g to convert dense data to sparse data in order to better utilize some analytical functions.

program
Determines what task needs to be performed. The program is a collection of metadata information about the name of the program, its type, and its arguments.

RBAL
In an ASM instance, this coordinates the disk activity for disk groups.

Redo Logfile Size Advisor
An advisor within the Oracle advisory framework that analyzes redo logfile usage and recommends an optimal redo logfile size to minimize I/O and logfile switches.

recycle bin
A logical structure available in all locally managed tablespaces (except for the SYSTEM and SYSAUX tablespaces) that maintains dropped versions of tables. The recycle bin is purged either manually or whenever space pressure exists in the tablespace.

Regular expressions
A method of describing both simple and complex patterns for searching and manipulating.

RVWR
A background process that writes data from the flashback buffer in the SGA to flashback logs in the flash recovery area.

Sample schema
Sample schemas are schema objects with sample data in them. The sample schema installation has five schemas: HR, IX, OE, PM, and SH. Most of the examples and sample code provided in the Oracle documentation are based on these sample schemas.

Segment Advisor
A tool available either via a PL/SQL package or within the EM Database Control that analyzes a segment or all segments within a tablespace and recommends remedial action to optimize the space within the segments.

schedule
Specifies when and how often a task (job) will be executed.

Segment Resource Estimation
A tool available only within the EM Database Control that can estimate space usage for a new table segment given the column datatypes, sizes, and the estimated row count.

segment shrink
The functionality either using ALTER TABLE or the EM Database Control interface to reclaim wasted space within a segment and optionally move the HWM down.

SET_THRESHOLD
A procedure within the package DBMS_SERVER_ALERT to set the threshold levels for a tablespace or other database resource.

Shared server
A database architecture where user requests are handled by different server processes. This architecture was formerly known as a multithreaded server.

smallfile tablespace
The traditional type of tablespace available in both previous releases of Oracle and Oracle 10g. Smallfile tablespaces can consist of one or many datafiles. Using all smallfile tablespaces limits the amount of data stored in an Oracle database to 8 petabytes (PB).

sorted hash clusters
A hash cluster, either single table or multiple table, that maintains rows ordered by one or more sort keys for each value of the cluster key to minimize memory usage and sort operations when the rows are retrieved from the cluster. Supports applications that process data in a FIFO manner.

SQL Access Advisor
A component of the Oracle advisory framework and the DBMS_ADVISOR package that helps to determine which indexes, materialized views, and materialized view logs will help the performance of a single query, an entire workload, or a derived workload based on a specified schema.

SQL profile
A collection of additional information about a SQL query that is collected during the automatic tuning of a SQL statement that can be used to improve the execution plan for future executions of the SQL statement.

SQL Tuning Advisor
A component of the Oracle advisory framework that automatically calls the Automatic Tuning Optimizer to perform several different types of analyses on a SQL query.

SQL Tuning Set (STS)
A construct to store and maintain a set of SQL statements along with its execution information.

SQLTUNE_CATEGORY
An initialization parameter used by the SQL Tuning Advisor to specify which category to use when applying a SQL profile to a SQL statement.

stateful alerts
As a category of server-generated alerts, stateful alerts are based on a threshold. Alerts are configured by setting a warning and critical threshold values on database metrics. stateless alerts As a category of server-generated alerts, stateless alerts are based on an event. Alert is sent out when an event such as “resumable session suspended” occurs.

Statistics aggregation
Aggregation of key metrics and statistics for problem diagnosis and analysis captured at the session, instance, service, module, or client identifier level.

STS
See SQL Tuning Set (STS).

SWITCH DATABASE
A new feature in RMAN used to quickly recover a database by using datafiles in the flash recovery area as the live database, eliminating any copy operations.

SYSAUX tablespace
A companion tablespace to the SYSTEM tablespace designed to offload the metadata from the SYSTEM tablespace as well as to consolidate other applications that previously required their own tablespaces.

temporary tablespace group
A database object that represents one or more temporary tablespaces. A temporary tablespace group cannot exist without any members. Temporary tablespace groups can be used anywhere that a temporary tablespace can.

Trcsess
A new utility to combine the trace files generated by multiple sessions based on a common criteria such as client identifier or service name.

tuning mode
A mode of the SQL Tuning Advisor that performs an in-depth analysis of highload SQL and produces a series of recommended actions to improve the execution plan of the query.

Undo Advisor
A tool within the Oracle advisory framework that uses past undo usage to recommend settings for the UNDO_RETENTION parameter as well as an optimal size for the undo tablespace.

V$SYSAUX_OCCUPANTS
A dynamic performance view containing a list of the applications whose metadata resides in the SYSAUX tablespace. Along with the space usage for each application, the column MOVE_PROCEDURE provides the name of the procedure or package that can be used to move the application’s metadata out of or into the SYSAUX tablespace.

Virtual Private Database (VPD)
Securing privileges of data at a row level. User queries are rewritten by the database to add a WHERE clause to filter rows that are not relevant to the user, which is determined by a policy function.

window
In the scheduler, can be used to activate different resource plans at different times. The window represents an interval with a well-defined start and end time.Dump FilesFiles written by data pump (expdp) and export (exp) utilities, which contain data and metadata extract from the database.

Window Group
In the scheduler, a window group represents a collection of windows.
   

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